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建筑结构的大跨越——新中国成立60年建设科技进步一瞥
发布时间:2017-11-09 21:05:01 浏览次数:
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; line-height: 200%; text-align: center" align="center"><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">建筑结构的大跨越</span></strong><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt"><o:p></o:p></span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; line-height: 200%; text-align: center" align="center"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt"><font face="Times New Roman">——</font></span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">新中国成立</span></strong><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt"><font face="Times New Roman">60</font></span></strong><strong><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">年建设科技进步一瞥</span></strong><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt"><o:p></o:p></span></strong></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; line-height: 200%; text-align: center" align="center"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><o:p><font face="Times New Roman"> </font></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-indent: 28pt; line-height: 200%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">新中国成立</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">60</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">年来,我国的建筑结构体系和技术飞速发展,新的结构体系不断开发应用,建筑结构技术日新月异。形态各异的大跨度建筑、高入云端的的高层与超高层建筑,在中国大地上拔地而起,显示出我国建筑结构水平空前提高,正在步入世界先进行列。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-indent: 28pt; line-height: 200%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">广度:空间结构成绩喜人  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-indent: 28pt; line-height: 200%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">新中国成立后,国家建设事业的发展,促进着建筑结构的科研工作,各种适合国情的空间大跨度结构被开发和应用。改革开放前的近</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">30</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">年中,薄壳结构、悬索结构、网架结构、网壳结构成为大型公用建筑工程中采用的几种主要结构型式。薄壳结构是上世纪五六十年代很受青睐的大跨度结构,其特点是结构与建筑围护合二为一,而且取材容易、施工方便,</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">1959</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">年建成的北京火车站就是双曲扁壳结构,跨度达</span><font face="Times New Roman"><st1:chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="35" unitname="m"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">35m</span></st1:chmetcnv><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">×<st1:chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="35" unitname="m">35m</st1:chmetcnv></span></font><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">。与此同时,悬索结构的研究与应用也有了进展,</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">1961</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">年建成的直径</span><st1:chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="96" unitname="米"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">96</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">米</span></st1:chmetcnv><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">的北京工人体育馆,采用的就是车辐式双层悬索结构,是这一结构有代表性的建筑之一。  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-indent: 28pt; line-height: 200%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">1967</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">年,跨度为</span><font face="Times New Roman"><st1:chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="99" unitname="m"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">99m</span></st1:chmetcnv><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">×<st1:chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="112" unitname="m">112m</st1:chmetcnv></span></font><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">的首都体育馆建成,它采用的是网架结构。网架结构是我国建筑结构中应用最广泛的大跨度空间结构,至今仍为建筑结构的主流。上世纪</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">70</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">年代末,网架结构中具有中国特色的焊空心球节点网架开发出来,随后于</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">1981</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">年编制了《网架结构设计与施工规定》,这是国际上最早的网架结构方面的技术规程。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">80</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">年代,平板型网架结构在各地的大跨度体育馆的建设中大量应用,成为这一时期的显著特点。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">90</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">年代以后网架结构的发展进入新阶段。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">1991</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">年修订后的《网架结构设计与施工规程》颁布;同时,新型的组合网架结构研发成功;而实用化网架结构</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">CAD</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">程序的开发,促进了网架结构的普及;</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">1995</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">年,</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">2×<st1:chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="153" unitname="m">153m</st1:chmetcnv>×<st1:chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="90" unitname="m">90m</st1:chmetcnv></font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">的首都机场巨型机库建成,是这一时期网架结构跨度方面最有影响的建筑。  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-indent: 28pt; line-height: 200%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">改革开放后,除网架结构外,悬索结构、网壳结构也有了发展。悬索结构在上世纪</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">80</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">年代的一些省市的体育馆建设上多有应用,而第十一届亚运会多座场馆则使用了网壳结构,如北京石景山体育馆、北京体育学院体育馆等。必须提及的是,具有自重轻、造型美观多样、跨度大、透光度高等特点的膜结构,</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">80</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">年代以后受到关注,并展开研究和实践。  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-indent: 28pt; line-height: 200%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">21</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">世纪前</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">10</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">年,各种大跨度结构得到充分展示,以传统结构为基础,新的结构、新的技术争奇斗艳,发展进入更加繁荣的阶段,最能代表发展水平的无疑就是</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">2008</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">北京奥运场馆。净跨度为</span><st1:chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="93" unitname="m"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">93m</font></span></st1:chmetcnv><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">米的奥运会羽毛球馆采用弦支联方型球面网壳,是目前世界上跨度最大的弦支网壳结构。沈阳奥体中心体育场屋盖由两个跨度</span><st1:chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="360" unitname="米"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">360</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">米</span></st1:chmetcnv><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">钢结构桁架大拱组成,主拱跨度</span><st1:chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="360" unitname="米"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">360</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">米</span></st1:chmetcnv><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">为全国之最。而多面体空间网架结构的</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">“</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">水立方</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">”</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">的主体结构由平板网架围成方盒子形状,围护结构则由形状、大小各异的</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">ETFE</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">薄膜气枕组成,它是世界上最大的膜结构封闭的单体建筑。长轴</span><st1:chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="332.3" unitname="米"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">332.3</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">米</span></st1:chmetcnv><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">、短轴</span><st1:chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="296.4" unitname="米"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">296.4</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">米</span></st1:chmetcnv><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">的</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">“</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">鸟巢</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">”</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">主体钢结构由</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">24</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">榀格构式钢架组成,它们绕着中央椭圆孔相互交叉布置,形成复杂而规律的空间网格体系。  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-indent: 28pt; line-height: 200%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">奥运场馆在结构方面的创新,体现了水平,也必将带动大跨度结构的新发展。  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-indent: 28pt; line-height: 200%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">高度:高层建筑结构技术进步大  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-indent: 28pt; line-height: 200%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">高楼林立,是现代城市发展的象征之一。新中国成立以后,我国的高层建筑结构技术水平不断进步,将一栋栋大楼推向新的高度。  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-indent: 28pt; line-height: 200%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">改革开放前,我国的高层建筑主要有</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">50</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">年代的</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">14</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">层的北京民族饭店、</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">16</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">层的民航大楼,</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">60</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">年代的</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">27</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">层的广州宾馆。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">1975</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">年建成的广州白云宾馆,达到</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">33</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">层、</span><st1:chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="112" unitname="米"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">112</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">米</span></st1:chmetcnv><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">,它标志着我国自行设计建造的高层建筑高度开始突破</span><st1:chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="100" unitname="米"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">100</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">米</span></st1:chmetcnv><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">。改革开放后,我国高层建筑发展进入兴盛时期,</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">1985</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">年建成的深圳国际贸易中心</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">50</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">层,高</span><st1:chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="160" unitname="米"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">160</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">米</span></st1:chmetcnv><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">,是</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">80</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">年代最高的建筑。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">90</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">年代我国</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">10</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">层以上高层建筑面积约</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">2.</font><st1:chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="1" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="500000000" unitname="平方米"><font face="Times New Roman">5</font><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><span lang="EN-US">亿平方米</span></span></st1:chmetcnv><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">,高度</span><st1:chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="100" unitname="米"><font face="Times New Roman">100</font><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><span lang="EN-US">米</span></span></st1:chmetcnv><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">以上的高层建筑达</span><font face="Times New Roman">200</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">幢。这一时期的最高建筑有:上海金茂大厦,</span><st1:chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="365" unitname="米"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">365</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">米</span></st1:chmetcnv><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">、塔尖高度</span><st1:chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="420" unitname="米"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">420</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">米</span></st1:chmetcnv><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">;深圳地王大厦</span><st1:chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="325" unitname="米"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">325</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">米</span></st1:chmetcnv><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">;广州中天广场</span><st1:chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="322" unitname="米"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">322</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">米</span></st1:chmetcnv><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">。进入</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">21</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">世纪,我国的高层建筑实现全面繁荣,建筑不断达到新高。高层建筑不仅仅集中出现在一些主要城市,很多中等城市、西部城市的高层建筑也得到快速发展。目前,我国的最高建筑是上海环球金融中心,地上</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">101</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">层,净高</span><st1:chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="492" unitname="米"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">492</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">米</span></st1:chmetcnv><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">。而正在建造中的</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">“</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">上海中心大厦</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">”</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">将在</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">2014</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">年完工后,以</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">118</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">层</span><st1:chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="580" unitname="米"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">580</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">米</span></st1:chmetcnv><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">(建筑顶高度为</span><st1:chmetcnv w:st="on" tcsc="0" numbertype="1" negative="False" hasspace="False" sourcevalue="632" unitname="米"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">632</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">米</span></st1:chmetcnv><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">)的高度成为新的</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">“</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">最高</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">”</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">。  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-indent: 28pt; line-height: 200%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">不断攀升的高度,直接反映了我国高层建筑技术发展水平。上世纪</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">70</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">年代以前,钢筋混凝土框架结构、框架</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">-</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">剪力墙结构和剪力墙结构是高层建筑采用的主要结构,广州白云宾馆应用的就是剪力墙结构。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">80</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">年代,钢筋混凝土结构仍是高层建筑主要结构,但建筑工程的需求,使更多结构体系出现了,筒中筒结构、筒体结构、框支剪力墙结构逐渐采用。</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">90</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">年代以后,结构体系日益丰富,最值得注意的是钢结构、钢</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">—</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">混凝土混合结构逐渐采用。如金茂大厦、北京国贸中心、深圳发展中心等都是钢</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">—</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">混凝土混合结构。这些新的结构体系在</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">21</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">世纪的今天得到进一步发展,近年已建成数十座高层钢结构建筑。  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-indent: 28pt; line-height: 200%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">与此同时,高层建筑结构设计方法不断创新,高层建筑结构已全部采用计算机三维空间结构程序分析计算。而施工技术迅速发展,</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">90</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">年代以来,国内高层建筑的施工方法以全现浇钢筋混凝土施工为主体,钢结构安装技术主要以塔式起重机为主机进行安装,高强螺栓连接已取代铆接和部分焊接。高性能混凝土得到推广应用,混凝土的预拌、预制、泵送等技术都达到了很高水平;近年来依靠进口的多种高效钢结构材料,已经实现了国产化。  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-indent: 28pt; line-height: 200%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">结构体系的丰富、技术水平的提高,促进了高层建筑的发展,使城市的面貌不断发生着改变。  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-indent: 28pt; line-height: 200%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">温度:建筑结构发展的新追求  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-indent: 28pt; line-height: 200%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">21</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">世纪是追求可持续发展的时代,建筑节能成为所有建筑都无法回避的课题,而节能减排的目标,更要求把节能贯穿在工程建设的各个环节。反映在建筑结构上,一是绿色环保结构得到重视并持续发展,二是墙体结构保温体系的研发应用逐步开展,并取得良好效果。  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-indent: 28pt; line-height: 200%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">钢结构由于在钢的生产过程中能耗较高,过去一直将其作为高能耗的建筑结构,但近年来,经过综合比对,人们逐渐改变了观念,视之为绿色环保的结构。其理由包括:首先,钢结构建筑自重轻、强度高,可以提高建筑抗震能力,提高建筑的安全性,进而节省社会资源。其次,钢结构具有明显的再循环利用价值。既有建筑拆除后,混凝土结构造成大量建筑垃圾,资源严重浪费,而钢结构拆除后,钢材回收利用率很高,建筑垃圾量极少。三是钢结构在施工时,沙、石、混凝土的用量大大减少,可以减轻对自然环境和资源的破坏;同时,施工现场干作业多,湿作业少,施工环境及现场周边环境可以获得更好保护。有业内人士认为,钢结构与保温墙体配合,建筑物的节能减排效果会十分明显。  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-indent: 28pt; line-height: 200%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">长期以来我国采用外墙外保温技术,效果明显,但外保温也存在不少问题,于是,人们把视线转向建筑结构与建筑节能一体化上,以从根本上解决外墙保温问题。  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-indent: 28pt; line-height: 200%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">经过工程技术人员的不断探索,近</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">10</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">年来建筑结构自保温体系和技术发展迅速,现浇钢筋混凝土夹心结构、砌块保温夹心结构、轻钢架保温夹芯板、内浇外挂钢筋混凝土保温夹芯板等结构体系纷纷出现,并在工程项目中推广应用。其中,现浇钢筋混凝土夹芯结构体系应用最广泛,全国</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">20</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">多个城市近百个工程运用了相关的模网技术、保温砌块现浇钢筋混凝土网格剪力墙承重技术、密肋壁板结构体系、</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">CL</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold">建筑结构体系等。这些结构自保温体系具有突出的节能效果,抗震、抗裂、保温与建筑同寿命、保温效果可达节能</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><font face="Times New Roman">65%</font></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-ascii-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"> 以上。因此,人们十分看好它的发展前景。  </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-indent: 28pt; line-height: 200%; mso-char-indent-count: 2.0"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 14pt; line-height: 200%; mso-fareast-font-family: 仿宋_GB2312; mso-font-kerning: 0pt; mso-bidi-font-weight: bold"><o:p></o:p><

 

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